Functional Overlapping Competing Jurisdictions

Functional (one core state power per jurisdiction) overlapping (multiple jurisdictions per territory offering similar functions) competing (jurisdictions compete for citizens to receive taxes) jurisdictions (separate political unit): low switching costs due to strong competition, citizens participate in decision-making, FOCJs replace nation states.

Proponents: Bruno Frey

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Reason for intervention

Institutional impact

Governance level



Legitimacy decision